Avro Vulcan

One of three “V bombers” designed to give Britain an “independent nuclear deterrent” in the 1950s, the Vulcan was intended to penetrate Soviet airspace at high altitude and drop free fall nuclear bombs, In the 1960s the aircraft had to adapt to low-level attack with stand-off nuclear missiles.
The Royal Air Force’s Vulcan squadrons converted to the Mk 2A version, optimized for low-level penetration missions, with more
powerful Olympus engines, terrain-following radar in the nose, and
passive radar warning located in a fin-top installation,
Eventually, submarine-launched Polaris missiles took over as Britain’s strategic nuclear strike force, but the Vulcan made its most significant mark in history just as it was being phased out of service.
Then, in 1982, ten were rejuvenated and modified to take part in the
Falklands Conflict. Flying from Ascension Island, they carried out five “Black Buck” raids against occupying Argentinian forces. These
involved a 16-hour round trip of 8,000 nautical miles – the longest bombing raids in history up to that time. The last Vulcan squadron eventually disbanded on 31 December 1982.

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