Voisin Biplane

French brothers Gabriel and Charles Voisin were Europe’s flrst commercial aeroplane manufacturers, making aircraft for customers as early as 1906. By 1909 the typical aircraft emerging from their Paris factory was a large pusher biplane based on the principle of the box-kite, as developed by Australian Lawrence Hargrave.
Voisin biplanes had an elevator mounted on the front of the fabric-covered nacelle that housed the pilot and engine, and a rudder inside the box-like tail structure. However, the Voisin brothers did not understand the need for ailerons for lateral control, assuming that turns could he made on rudder alone. This was indeed possible, bul the pilot had to exercise great caution, making flat, wide turns to avoid the aircraft sideslipping into the ground.
Voisin designs emphasized stability above all else, so the struts between the wings and tailplanes were covered by fabric “curtains”
to provide stabilizing side areas. A strong and heavy tubular steel undercarriage with spiral springs helped withstand the rough aerodrome surfaces often encountered in the early days of flying. A variety of engines were installed, according to customers’ requirements.
A number of famous flight pioneers, including Leon Delagrange and Henry Farman, bought Voisin biplanes and flew them successfully, often modifying them in the process. But these ungainly, cumbersome aircraft quickly became outdated.